GATE Biotechnology

Graduate aptitude test in Engineering is conducted each year by each of the participating 7 IITs (i.e IIT Delhi, Bombay, Kanpur, Chennai, Guwahati, Kharagpur & Roorkee) or IISc, Bangalore on behalf of the National Coordinating Board- GATE, Department of Education, Ministry of Human Resources Development (MHRD), Government of India. GATE BT was first introduced as a GATE subject from the year 2010 only. Every year 11000-18000 students appear for the GATE BT exam where the technical and applied aspects of biology are the key focus. However, GATE BT has lesser foot fall as compared to GATE XL. All GATE exam are conducted by an online computer based test (CBT).

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Eligibility

a) Students who are currently in the final year or already completed their Bachelor’s degree holders in Engineering/ Technology (4 years after 10+2) are eligible.
b) Students who have currently in the final year or already completed their Master’s degree in any branch of science.
c) Students who are pursuing Four-year Integrated Masters degree programme (Post- B.Sc.) in Engineering/Technology and they are Currently in the 2nd/3rd/4th year or already completed.
d) Students who are in the 4th/5th year or already completed their Integrated Master’s degree program or Dual Degree program in Engineering / Technology (Five year program).


Pattern of the GATE BT exam:

The GATE examination consists of a single paper of 3-hour duration that contains 65 questions carrying a maximum of 100 marks. The question paper will consist of both multiple choice questions (MCQ) and numerical answer type (NAT) questions. GATE 2016 would contain questions of two different types in various papers:
(i)Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ) carrying 1 or 2 marks each in all papers and sections. These questions are objective in nature, and each will have a choice of four answers, out of which the candidate has to mark the correct answer(s).
(ii) Numerical Answer Questions of 1 or 2 marks each in all papers and sections. For these questions the answer is a real number, to be entered by the candidate using the virtual keypad. No choices will be shown for this type of questions.


Breakdown of the paper & negative marking

1. Q1 – Q25 (one mark each): For all 1 mark questions, 1/3 mark will be deducted for each wrong answer.
2. Q.26 – Q.51 (2 marks each): For all 2 marks questions, 2/3 mark will be deducted for each wrong answer.
3. Q52 – Q55 (2 marks each): This section include two pairs of common data questions and two pairs of linked answer questions. The answer to the second question of the linked answer questions depends on the answer to the first question of the pair. If the first question in the linked pair is wrongly answered or is not attempted, then the answer to the second question in the pair will not be evaluated.
4. Q.56 – Q.60 (one mark each): These questions are from general aptitude. 5. Q61 – 65 (2 marks each): These questions are from general aptitude.


Important Dates:

Last date of submission of online application: 1st October
GATE online exam: Last week of January or first week of February.

GATE BT Syllabus

Section 1: Engineering Mathematics

Linear Algebra: Matrices and determinants, Systems of linear equations, Eigen values and Eigen vectors. Calculus: Limit, continuity and differentiability, Partial derivatives, Maxima and minima, Sequences and series, Test for convergence, Fourier Series. Differential Equations: Linear and nonlinear first order ODEs, higher order ODEs with constant coefficients, Cauchy’s and Euler’s equations, Laplace transforms, PDE-Laplace, heat and wave equations. Probability and Statistics: Mean, median, mode and standard deviation, Random variables, Poisson, normal and binomial distributions, Correlation and regression analysis. Numerical Methods: Solution of linear and nonlinear algebraic equations, Integration of trapezoidal and Simpson’s rule, Single and multistep methods for differential equations.


Section 2: General Biotechnology

Biochemistry: Biomolecules-structure and functions; Biological membranes, structure, action potential and transport processes; Enzymes- classification, kinetics and mechanism of action; Basic concepts and designs of metabolism (carbohydrates, lipids, amino acids and nucleic acids) photosynthesis, respiration and electron transport chain; Bioenergetics Microbiology: Viruses- structure and classification; Microbial classification and diversity(bacterial, algal and fungal); Methods in microbiology; Microbial growth and nutrition; Aerobic and anaerobic respiration; Nitrogen fixation; Microbial diseases and host-pathogen interaction Cell Biology: Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell structure; Cell cycle and cell growth control; Cell-Cell communication, Cell signaling and signal transduction Molecular Biology and Genetics: Molecular structure of genes and chromosomes; Mutations and mutagenesis; Nucleic acid replication, transcription, translation and their regulatory mechanisms in prokaryotes and eukaryotes; Mendelian inheritance; Gene interaction; Complementation; Linkage, recombination and chromosome mapping; Extra chromosomal inheritance; Microbial genetics (plasmids, transformation, transduction, conjugation); Horizontal gene transfer and Transposable elements; RNA interference; DNA damage and repair; Chromosomal variation; Molecular basis of genetic diseases Analytical Techniques: Principles of microscopy-light, electron, fluorescent and confocal; Centrifugation- high speed and ultra; Principles of spectroscopy-UV, visible, CD, IR, FTIR, Raman, MS,NMR; Principles of chromatography- ion exchange, gel filtration, hydrophobic interaction, affinity, GC,HPLC, FPLC; Electrophoresis; Microarray Immunology: History of Immunology; Innate, humoral and cell mediated immunity; Antigen; Antibody structure and function; Molecular basis of antibody diversity; Synthesis of antibody and secretion; Antigen-antibody reaction; Complement; Primary and secondary lymphoid organ; B and T cells and macrophages; Major histocompatibility complex (MHC); Antigen processing and presentation; Polyclonal and monoclonal antibody; Regulation of immune response; Immune tolerance; Hypersensitivity; Autoimmunity; Graft versus host reaction. Bioinformatics: Major bioinformatic resources and search tools; Sequence and structure databases; Sequence analysis (biomolecular sequence file formats, scoring matrices, sequence alignment, phylogeny);Data mining and analytical tools for genomic and proteomic studies; Molecular dynamics and simulations (basic concepts including force fields, protein-protein, protein-nucleic acid, protein-ligand interaction)


Section 3: Recombinant DNA Technology

Restriction and modification enzymes; Vectors; plasmid, bacteriophage and other viral vectors, cosmids, Ti plasmid, yeast artificial chromosome; mammalian and plant expression vectors; cDNA and genomic DNA library; Gene isolation, cloning and expression ; Transposons and gene targeting; DNA labeling; DNA sequencing; Polymerase chain reactions; DNA fingerprinting; Southern and northern blotting; In-situ hybridization; RAPD, RFLP; Site-directed mutagenesis; Gene transfer technologies; Gene therapy Section 4: Plant and Animal Biotechnology Totipotency; Regeneration of plants; Plant growth regulators and elicitors; Tissue culture and Cell suspension culture system: methodology, kinetics of growth and, nutrient optimization; Production of secondary metabolites by plant suspension cultures; Hairy root culture; transgenic plants; Plant products of industrial importance Animal cell culture; media composition and growth conditions; Animal cell and tissue preservation; Anchorage and non-anchorage dependent cell culture; Kinetics of cell growth; Micro & macro-carrier culture; Hybridoma technology; Stem cell technology; Animal cloning; Transgenic animals


Section 5: Bioprocess Engineering and Process Biotechnology

Chemical engineering principles applied to biological system, Principle of reactor design, ideal and non-ideal multiphase bioreactors, mass and heat transfer; Rheology of fermentation fluids, Aeration and agitation; Media formulation and optimization; Kinetics of microbial growth, substrate utilization and product formation; Sterilization of air and media; Batch, fed-batch and continuous processes; Various types of microbial and enzyme reactors; Instrumentation control and optimization; Unit operations in solid-liquid separation and liquid-liquid extraction; Process scale-up, economics and feasibility analysis Engineering principle of bioprocessing- Upstream production and downstream; Bioprocess design and development from lab to industrial scale; Microbial, animal and plant cell culture platforms; Production of biomass and primary/secondary metabolites; Biofuels, Bioplastics, industrial enzymes, antibiotics; Large scale production and purification of recombinant proteins; Industrial application of chromatographic and membrane based bioseparation methods; Immobilization of biocatalysts (enzymes and cells) for bioconversion processes; Bioremediation-Aerobic and anaerobic processes for stabilization of solid / liquid wastes


General Aptitude


Verbal Ability

English grammar, sentence completion, verbal analogies, word groups, instructions, critical reasoning and verbal deduction.


Numerical Ability

Numerical computation, numerical estimation, numerical reasoning and data interpretation.

GATE XL

Introduction

The Graduate Aptitude Test in Engineering (GATE) is an all-India examination that primarily tests the comprehensive understanding of various undergraduate subjects in engineering and science. The score is used for admissions to various post-graduate education programs (e.g. Master of Engineering, Master of Technology, Doctor of Philosophy) in Indian higher education institutes, with financial assistance provided by MHRD and other government agencies. 


Eligibility:

Eligibility criteria for GATE XL is same as that of GATE BT


 Pattern of the GATE BT exam:

The GATE examination consists of a single paper of 3-hour duration that contains 65 questions carrying a maximum of 100 marks. The question paper will consist of both multiple choice questions (MCQ) and numerical answer type (NAT) questions. A candidate appearing in the XL paper has to answer the following sections:
Chemistry (compulsory)
General aptitude (Compulsory)
A candidate can choose any 2 disciplines out of these 4 choices (Biochemistry, Botany, Microbiology, and Zoology)
Importantly, The choice of two sections from I to M can be made during the examination after viewing the questions. Only two optional sections can be answered at a time. A candidate wishing to change midway of the examination to another optional section must first choose to deselect one of the previously chosen optional sections (I to M).


Breakdown of the paper & negative marking

There are a total of 65 questions carrying 100 marks.
1. There are 10 questions carrying 15 marks in General Aptitude (GA) section, which is compulsory. Questions Q.1 – Q.5 carry 1 mark each, and questions Q.6 – Q.10 carry 2 marks each.
2. There are 15 questions carrying 25 marks in Section H (Chemistry), which is compulsory. Questions. Q.1 – Q.5 carry 1 mark each and questions Q.6- Q.15 carry 2 marks each.
3. Each of the other sections (Sections I through M) contains 20 questions carrying 30 marks. Questions. Q.1 – Q.10 carry 1 mark each and questions Q.11 – Q.20 carry 2 marks each.
1/3 mark will be deducted for wrong answer of a one mark question, whereas 2/3 marks will be deducted for 2 mark question.


Important Dates:

Last date of submission of online application: 1st October
GATE online exam: Last week of January or first week of February


Result:

March

Eligibility

a) Students who are currently in the final year or already completed their Bachelor’s degree holders in Engineering/ Technology (4 years after 10+2) are eligible.
b) Students who have currently in the final year or already completed their Master’s degree in any branch of science.
c) Students who are pursuing Four-year Integrated Masters degree programme (Post- B.Sc.) in Engineering/Technology and they are Currently in the 2nd/3rd/4th year or already completed.
d) Students who are in the 4th/5th year or already completed their Integrated Master’s degree program or Dual Degree program in Engineering / Technology (Five year program).

Pattern of the GATE BT exam:

The GATE examination consists of a single paper of 3-hour duration that contains 65 questions carrying a maximum of 100 marks. The question paper will consist of both multiple choice questions (MCQ) and numerical answer type (NAT) questions. GATE 2016 would contain questions of two different types in various papers:
(i)Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ) carrying 1 or 2 marks each in all papers and sections. These questions are objective in nature, and each will have a choice of four answers, out of which the candidate has to mark the correct answer(s).
(ii) Numerical Answer Questions of 1 or 2 marks each in all papers and sections. For these questions the answer is a real number, to be entered by the candidate using the virtual keypad. No choices will be shown for this type of questions.

Breakdown of the paper & negative marking

1. Q1 – Q25 (one mark each): For all 1 mark questions, 1/3 mark will be deducted for each wrong answer.
2. Q.26 – Q.51 (2 marks each): For all 2 marks questions, 2/3 mark will be deducted for each wrong answer.
3. Q52 – Q55 (2 marks each): This section include two pairs of common data questions and two pairs of linked answer questions. The answer to the second question of the linked answer questions depends on the answer to the first question of the pair. If the first question in the linked pair is wrongly answered or is not attempted, then the answer to the second question in the pair will not be evaluated.
4. Q.56 – Q.60 (one mark each): These questions are from general aptitude. 5. Q61 – 65 (2 marks each): These questions are from general aptitude.

Important Dates:

Last date of submission of online application: 1st October
GATE online exam: Last week of January or first week of February.
Result:
March

Regular classroom programme (GAG1)

The regular classroom program of Genesis are tailor made capsule program designed for success in both GATE BT & XL, The program lasts about 6 months and gives a comprehensive coverage of all aspects of GATE syllabus.

(GAG1 course duration:6 months)

Classes on weekdays except public holidays. (4-6 hours daily)
Target group: M.Sc/B.Tech degree qualified students

Start dates of our Programs

Typically admission to this GATE programs starts in the month of July and August for the exam in January/February.


Weekend classroom programme (GAG2)

The weekend classroom program of Genesis are tailor made capsule program designed for success in both GATE BT & XL, for students who are pursuing their degree programs. The program lasts about 8-9 months and gives a comprehensive coverage of all aspects of GATE syllabus. Importantly classes are held for the students only on weekend and weekdays

 

(GAG2 course duration: 9 months)


Classes on weekdays except public holidays. (4-6 hours daily)
Target group: M.Sc/B.Tech degree pursuing students

Start dates of our program

Typically admission to this GATE programs starts is open from February to July end for the exam in January/February.

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